This is the documentation for Cloudera Impala 1.4.0.
Documentation for other versions is available at Cloudera.com.

String Functions

Impala supports the following string functions:

ascii(string str)
Purpose: Returns the numeric ASCII code of the first character of the argument.

Return type: int

char_length(string a), character_length(string a)
Purpose: Returns the length in characters of the argument string. Aliases for the length() function.

Return type: int

concat(string a, string b...)
Purpose: Returns a single string representing all the argument values joined together.

Return type: string

Usage notes: concat() and concat_ws() are appropriate for concatenating the values of multiple columns within the same row, while group_concat() joins together values from different rows.

concat_ws(string sep, string a, string b...)
Purpose: Returns a single string representing the second and following argument values joined together, delimited by a specified separator.

Return type: string

Usage notes: concat() and concat_ws() are appropriate for concatenating the values of multiple columns within the same row, while group_concat() joins together values from different rows.

find_in_set(string str, string strList)
Purpose: Returns the position (starting from 1) of the first occurrence of a specified string within a comma-separated string. Returns NULL if either argument is NULL, 0 if the search string is not found, or 0 if the search string contains a comma.

Return type: int

group_concat(string s [, string sep])
Purpose: Returns a single string representing the argument value concatenated together for each row of the result set. If the optional separator string is specified, the separator is added between each pair of concatenated values.

Return type: string

Usage notes: concat() and concat_ws() are appropriate for concatenating the values of multiple columns within the same row, while group_concat() joins together values from different rows.

By default, returns a single string covering the whole result set. To include other columns or values in the result set, or to produce multiple concatenated strings for subsets of rows, include a GROUP BY clause in the query.

initcap(string str)
Purpose: Returns the input string with the first letter capitalized.

Return type: string

instr(string str, string substr)
Purpose: Returns the position (starting from 1) of the first occurrence of a substring within a longer string.

Return type: int

length(string a)
Purpose: Returns the length in characters of the argument string.

Return type: int

locate(string substr, string str[, int pos])
Purpose: Returns the position (starting from 1) of the first occurrence of a substring within a longer string, optionally after a particular position.

Return type: int

lower(string a), lcase(string a)
Purpose: Returns the argument string converted to all-lowercase.

Return type: string

lpad(string str, int len, string pad)
Purpose: Returns a string of a specified length, based on the first argument string. If the specified string is too short, it is padded on the left with a repeating sequence of the characters from the pad string. If the specified string is too long, it is truncated on the right.

Return type: string

ltrim(string a)
Purpose: Returns the argument string with any leading spaces removed from the left side.

Return type: string

parse_url(string urlString, string partToExtract [, string keyToExtract])
Purpose: Returns the portion of a URL corresponding to a specified part. The part argument can be 'PROTOCOL', 'HOST', 'PATH', 'REF', 'AUTHORITY', 'FILE', 'USERINFO', or 'QUERY'. Uppercase is required for these literal values. When requesting the QUERY portion of the URL, you can optionally specify a key to retrieve just the associated value from the key-value pairs in the query string.

Return type: string

Usage notes: This function is important for the traditional Hadoop use case of interpreting web logs. For example, if the web traffic data features raw URLs not divided into separate table columns, you can count visitors to a particular page by extracting the 'PATH' or 'FILE' field, or analyze search terms by extracting the corresponding key from the 'QUERY' field.

regexp_extract(string subject, string pattern, int index)
Purpose: Returns the specified () group from a string based on a regular expression pattern. Group 0 refers to the entire extracted string, while group 1, 2, and so on refers to the first, second, and so on (...) portion.

Return type: string

The Impala regular expression syntax conforms to the POSIX Extended Regular Expression syntax used by the Boost library. For details, see the Boost documentation. It has most idioms familiar from regular expressions in Perl, Python, and so on. It does not support .*? for non-greedy matches.

Because the impala-shell interpreter uses the \ character for escaping, use \\ to represent the regular expression escape character in any regular expressions that you submit through impala-shell. You might prefer to use the equivalent character class names, such as [[:digit:]] instead of \d which you would have to escape as \\d.

Examples:

This example shows how group 0 matches the full pattern string, including the portion outside any () group:

[localhost:21000] > select regexp_extract('abcdef123ghi456jkl','.*(\\d+)',0);
+-----------------------------------------------------+
| regexp_extract('abcdef123ghi456jkl', '.*(\\d+)', 0) |
+-----------------------------------------------------+
| abcdef123ghi456                                     |
+-----------------------------------------------------+
Returned 1 row(s) in 0.11s

This example shows how group 1 matches just the contents inside the first () group in the pattern string:

[localhost:21000] > select regexp_extract('abcdef123ghi456jkl','.*(\\d+)',1);
+-----------------------------------------------------+
| regexp_extract('abcdef123ghi456jkl', '.*(\\d+)', 1) |
+-----------------------------------------------------+
| 456                                                 |
+-----------------------------------------------------+
Returned 1 row(s) in 0.11s

The Boost regular expression syntax does not support the .*? idiom for non-greedy matches. This example shows how a pattern string starting with .* matches the longest possible portion of the source string, effectively serving as a greedy match and returning the rightmost set of lowercase letters. A pattern string both starting and ending with .* finds two potential matches of equal length, and returns the first one found (the leftmost set of lowercase letters), effectively serving as a non-greedy match.

[localhost:21000] > select regexp_extract('AbcdBCdefGHI','.*([[:lower:]]+)',1);
+-------------------------------------------------------+
| regexp_extract('abcdbcdefghi', '.*([[:lower:]]+)', 1) |
+-------------------------------------------------------+
| def                                                   |
+-------------------------------------------------------+
Returned 1 row(s) in 0.12s
[localhost:21000] > select regexp_extract('AbcdBCdefGHI','.*([[:lower:]]+).*',1);
+---------------------------------------------------------+
| regexp_extract('abcdbcdefghi', '.*([[:lower:]]+).*', 1) |
+---------------------------------------------------------+
| bcd                                                     |
+---------------------------------------------------------+
Returned 1 row(s) in 0.11s
regexp_replace(string initial, string pattern, string replacement)
Purpose: Returns the initial argument with the regular expression pattern replaced by the final argument string.

Return type: string

The Impala regular expression syntax conforms to the POSIX Extended Regular Expression syntax used by the Boost library. For details, see the Boost documentation. It has most idioms familiar from regular expressions in Perl, Python, and so on. It does not support .*? for non-greedy matches.

Because the impala-shell interpreter uses the \ character for escaping, use \\ to represent the regular expression escape character in any regular expressions that you submit through impala-shell. You might prefer to use the equivalent character class names, such as [[:digit:]] instead of \d which you would have to escape as \\d.

Examples:

These examples show how you can replace parts of a string matching a pattern with replacement text, which can include backreferences to any () groups in the pattern string. The backreference numbers start at 1, and any \ characters must be escaped as \\.

Replace a character pattern with new text:

[localhost:21000] > select regexp_replace('aaabbbaaa','b+','xyz');
+------------------------------------------+
| regexp_replace('aaabbbaaa', 'b+', 'xyz') |
+------------------------------------------+
| aaaxyzaaa                                |
+------------------------------------------+
Returned 1 row(s) in 0.11s

Replace a character pattern with substitution text that includes the original matching text:

[localhost:21000] > select regexp_replace('aaabbbaaa','(b+)','<\\1>');
+----------------------------------------------+
| regexp_replace('aaabbbaaa', '(b+)', '<\\1>') |
+----------------------------------------------+
| aaa<bbb>aaa                                  |
+----------------------------------------------+
Returned 1 row(s) in 0.11s

Remove all characters that are not digits:

[localhost:21000] > select regexp_replace('123-456-789','[^[:digit:]]','');
+---------------------------------------------------+
| regexp_replace('123-456-789', '[^[:digit:]]', '') |
+---------------------------------------------------+
| 123456789                                         |
+---------------------------------------------------+
Returned 1 row(s) in 0.12s
repeat(string str, int n)
Purpose: Returns the argument string repeated a specified number of times.

Return type: string

reverse(string a)
Purpose: Returns the argument string with characters in reversed order.

Return type: string

rpad(string str, int len, string pad)
Purpose: Returns a string of a specified length, based on the first argument string. If the specified string is too short, it is padded on the right with a repeating sequence of the characters from the pad string. If the specified string is too long, it is truncated on the right.

Return type: string

rtrim(string a)
Purpose: Returns the argument string with any trailing spaces removed from the right side.

Return type: string

space(int n)
Purpose: Returns a concatenated string of the specified number of spaces. Shorthand for repeat(' ',n).

Return type: string

strleft(string a, int num_chars)
Purpose: Returns the leftmost characters of the string. Shorthand for a call to substr() with 2 arguments.

Return type: string

strright(string a, int num_chars)
Purpose: Returns the rightmost characters of the string. Shorthand for a call to substr() with 2 arguments.

Return type: string

substr(string a, int start [, int len]), substring(string a, int start [, int len])
Purpose: Returns the portion of the string starting at a specified point, optionally with a specified maximum length. The characters in the string are indexed starting at 1.

Return type: string

translate(string input, string from, string to)
Purpose: Returns the input string with a set of characters replaced by another set of characters.

Return type: string

trim(string a)
Purpose: Returns the input string with both leading and trailing spaces removed. The same as passing the string through both ltrim() and rtrim().

Return type: string

upper(string a), ucase(string a)
Purpose: Returns the argument string converted to all-uppercase.

Return type: string