Using HBase Command-Line Utilities

Besides the HBase Shell, HBase includes several other command-line utilities, which are available in the hbase/bin/ directory of each HBase host. This topic provides basic usage instructions for the most commonly used utilities.

PerformanceEvaluation

The PerformanceEvaluation utility allows you to run several preconfigured tests on your cluster and reports its performance. To run the PerformanceEvaluation tool in CDH 5.1 and higher, use the bin/hbase pe command. In CDH 5.0 and lower, use the command bin/hbase org.apache.hadoop.hbase.PerformanceEvaluation.

For usage instructions, run the command with no arguments. The following output shows the usage instructions for the PerformanceEvaluation tool in CDH 5.7. Options and commands available depend on the CDH version.
$ hbase pe

Usage: java org.apache.hadoop.hbase.PerformanceEvaluation \
  <OPTIONS> [-D<property=value>]* <command> <nclients>

Options:
 nomapred        Run multiple clients using threads (rather than use mapreduce)
 rows            Rows each client runs. Default: One million
 size            Total size in GiB. Mutually exclusive with --rows. Default: 1.0.
 sampleRate      Execute test on a sample of total rows. Only supported by randomRead.
                 Default: 1.0
 traceRate       Enable HTrace spans. Initiate tracing every N rows. Default: 0
 table           Alternate table name. Default: 'TestTable'
 multiGet        If >0, when doing RandomRead, perform multiple gets instead of single
                 gets.
                 Default: 0
 compress        Compression type to use (GZ, LZO, ...). Default: 'NONE'
 flushCommits    Used to determine if the test should flush the table. Default: false
 writeToWAL      Set writeToWAL on puts. Default: True
 autoFlush       Set autoFlush on htable. Default: False
 oneCon          all the threads share the same connection. Default: False
 presplit        Create presplit table. Recommended for accurate perf analysis (see
                 guide). Default: disabled
 inmemory        Tries to keep the HFiles of the CF inmemory as far as possible. Not
                 guaranteed that reads are always served from memory.  Default: false
 usetags         Writes tags along with KVs. Use with HFile V3. Default: false
 numoftags       Specify the no of tags that would be needed. This works only if usetags
                 is true.
 filterAll       Helps to filter out all the rows on the server side there by not returning
                 anything back to the client.  Helps to check the server side performance.
                 Uses FilterAllFilter internally.
 latency         Set to report operation latencies. Default: False
 bloomFilter     Bloom filter type, one of [NONE, ROW, ROWCOL]
 valueSize       Pass value size to use: Default: 1024
 valueRandom     Set if we should vary value size between 0 and 'valueSize'; set on read
                 for stats on size: Default: Not set.
 valueZipf       Set if we should vary value size between 0 and 'valueSize' in zipf form:
                 Default: Not set.
 period          Report every 'period' rows: Default: opts.perClientRunRows / 10
 multiGet        Batch gets together into groups of N. Only supported by randomRead.
                 Default: disabled
 addColumns      Adds columns to scans/gets explicitly. Default: true
 replicas        Enable region replica testing. Defaults: 1.
 splitPolicy     Specify a custom RegionSplitPolicy for the table.
 randomSleep     Do a random sleep before each get between 0 and entered value. Defaults: 0
 columns         Columns to write per row. Default: 1
 caching         Scan caching to use. Default: 30

 Note: -D properties will be applied to the conf used.
  For example:
   -Dmapreduce.output.fileoutputformat.compress=true
   -Dmapreduce.task.timeout=60000

Command:
 append          Append on each row; clients overlap on keyspace so some concurrent
                 operations
 checkAndDelete  CheckAndDelete on each row; clients overlap on keyspace so some concurrent
                 operations
 checkAndMutate  CheckAndMutate on each row; clients overlap on keyspace so some concurrent
                 operations
 checkAndPut     CheckAndPut on each row; clients overlap on keyspace so some concurrent
                 operations
 filterScan      Run scan test using a filter to find a specific row based on it's value
                 (make sure to use --rows=20)
 increment       Increment on each row; clients overlap on keyspace so some concurrent
                 operations
 randomRead      Run random read test
 randomSeekScan  Run random seek and scan 100 test
 randomWrite     Run random write test
 scan            Run scan test (read every row)
 scanRange10     Run random seek scan with both start and stop row (max 10 rows)
 scanRange100    Run random seek scan with both start and stop row (max 100 rows)
 scanRange1000   Run random seek scan with both start and stop row (max 1000 rows)
 scanRange10000  Run random seek scan with both start and stop row (max 10000 rows)
 sequentialRead  Run sequential read test
 sequentialWrite Run sequential write test

Args:
 nclients        Integer. Required. Total number of clients (and HRegionServers)
                 running: 1 <= value <= 500
Examples:
 To run a single client doing the default 1M sequentialWrites:
 $ bin/hbase org.apache.hadoop.hbase.PerformanceEvaluation sequentialWrite 1
 To run 10 clients doing increments over ten rows:
 $ bin/hbase org.apache.hadoop.hbase.PerformanceEvaluation --rows=10 --nomapred increment 10

LoadTestTool

The LoadTestTool utility load-tests your cluster by performing writes, updates, or reads on it. To run the LoadTestTool in CDH 5.1 and higher, use the bin/hbase ltt command . In CDH 5.0 and lower, use the command bin/hbase org.apache.hadoop.hbase.util.LoadTestTool. To print general usage information, use the -h option. Options and commands available depend on the CDH version.
$ bin/hbase ltt -h

Options:
 -batchupdate                    Whether to use batch as opposed to separate updates for every column
                                 in a row
 -bloom <arg>                    Bloom filter type, one of [NONE, ROW, ROWCOL]
 -compression <arg>              Compression type, one of [LZO, GZ, NONE, SNAPPY, LZ4]
 -data_block_encoding <arg>      Encoding algorithm (e.g. prefix compression) to use for data blocks
                                 in the test column family, one of
                                 [NONE, PREFIX, DIFF, FAST_DIFF, PREFIX_TREE].
 -deferredlogflush               Enable deferred log flush.
 -encryption <arg>               Enables transparent encryption on the test table, one of [AES]
 -families <arg>                 The name of the column families to use separated by comma
 -generator <arg>                The class which generates load for the tool. Any args for this class
                                 can be passed as colon separated after class name
 -h,--help                       Show usage
 -in_memory                      Tries to keep the HFiles of the CF inmemory as far as possible.  Not
                                 guaranteed that reads are always served from inmemory
 -init_only                      Initialize the test table only, don't do any loading
 -key_window <arg>               The 'key window' to maintain between reads and writes for concurrent
                                 write/read workload. The default is 0.
 -max_read_errors <arg>          The maximum number of read errors to tolerate before terminating all
                                 reader threads. The default is 10.
 -mob_threshold <arg>            Desired cell size to exceed in bytes that will use the MOB write path
 -multiget_batchsize <arg>       Whether to use multi-gets as opposed to separate gets for every
                                 column in a row
 -multiput                       Whether to use multi-puts as opposed to separate puts for every
                                 column in a row
 -num_keys <arg>                 The number of keys to read/write
 -num_regions_per_server <arg>   Desired number of regions per region server. Defaults to 5.
 -num_tables <arg>               A positive integer number. When a number n is specified, load test tool
                                 will load n table parallely. -tn parameter value becomes table name prefix.
                                 Each table name is in format <tn>_1...<tn>_n
 -read <arg>                     <verify_percent>[:<#threads=20>]
 -reader <arg>                   The class for executing the read requests
 -region_replica_id <arg>        Region replica id to do the reads from
 -region_replication <arg>       Desired number of replicas per region
 -regions_per_server <arg>       A positive integer number. When a number n is specified, load test tool
                                 will create the test table with n regions per server
 -skip_init                      Skip the initialization; assume test table already exists
 -start_key <arg>                The first key to read/write (a 0-based index). The default value is 0.
 -tn <arg>                       The name of the table to read or write
 -update <arg>                   <update_percent>[:<#threads=20>][:<#whether to ignore nonce collisions=0>]
 -updater <arg>                  The class for executing the update requests
 -write <arg>                    <avg_cols_per_key>:<avg_data_size>[:<#threads=20>]
 -writer <arg>                   The class for executing the write requests
 -zk <arg>                       ZK quorum as comma-separated host names without port numbers
 -zk_root <arg>                  name of parent znode in zookeeper

wal

The wal utility prints information about the contents of a specified WAL file. To get a list of all WAL files, use the HDFS command hadoop fs -ls -R /hbase/WALs. To run the wal utility, use the bin/hbase wal command. Run it without options to get usage information.
hbase wal
usage: WAL <filename...> [-h] [-j] [-p] [-r <arg>] [-s <arg>] [-w <arg>]
 -h,--help             Output help message
 -j,--json             Output JSON
 -p,--printvals        Print values
 -r,--region <arg>     Region to filter by. Pass encoded region name; e.g.
                       '9192caead6a5a20acb4454ffbc79fa14'
 -s,--sequence <arg>   Sequence to filter by. Pass sequence number.
 -w,--row <arg>        Row to filter by. Pass row name.

hfile

The hfile utility prints diagnostic information about a specified hfile, such as block headers or statistics. To get a list of all hfiles, use the HDFS command hadoop fs -ls -R /hbase/data. To run the hfile utility, use the bin/hbase hfile command. Run it without options to get usage information.
$ hbase hfile

usage: HFile [-a] [-b] [-e] [-f <arg> | -r <arg>] [-h] [-i] [-k] [-m] [-p]
       [-s] [-v] [-w <arg>]
 -a,--checkfamily         Enable family check
 -b,--printblocks         Print block index meta data
 -e,--printkey            Print keys
 -f,--file <arg>          File to scan. Pass full-path; e.g.
                          hdfs://a:9000/hbase/hbase:meta/12/34
 -h,--printblockheaders   Print block headers for each block.
 -i,--checkMobIntegrity   Print all cells whose mob files are missing
 -k,--checkrow            Enable row order check; looks for out-of-order
                          keys
 -m,--printmeta           Print meta data of file
 -p,--printkv             Print key/value pairs
 -r,--region <arg>        Region to scan. Pass region name; e.g.
                          'hbase:meta,,1'
 -s,--stats               Print statistics
 -v,--verbose             Verbose output; emits file and meta data
                          delimiters
 -w,--seekToRow <arg>     Seek to this row and print all the kvs for this
                          row only

hbck

The hbck utility checks and optionally repairs errors in HFiles. To run hbck, use the bin/hbase hbck command. Run it with the -h option to get more usage information.
$ bin/hbase hbck -h

Usage: fsck [opts] {only tables}
 where [opts] are:
   -help Display help options (this)
   -details Display full report of all regions.
   -timelag <timeInSeconds>  Process only regions that  have not experienced any metadata updates in the last
            <timeInSeconds> seconds.
   -sleepBeforeRerun <timeInSeconds> Sleep this many seconds before checking if the fix worked if run with
                     -fix
   -summary Print only summary of the tables and status.
   -metaonly Only check the state of the hbase:meta table.
   -sidelineDir <hdfs://> HDFS path to backup existing meta.
   -boundaries Verify that regions boundaries are the same between META and store files.
   -exclusive Abort if another hbck is exclusive or fixing.
   -disableBalancer Disable the load balancer.

  Metadata Repair options: (expert features, use with caution!)
   -fix              Try to fix region assignments.  This is for backwards compatibility
   -fixAssignments   Try to fix region assignments.  Replaces the old -fix
   -fixMeta          Try to fix meta problems.  This assumes HDFS region info is good.
   -noHdfsChecking   Don't load/check region info from HDFS. Assumes hbase:meta region info is good. Won't
                     check/fix any HDFS issue, e.g. hole, orphan, or overlap
   -fixHdfsHoles     Try to fix region holes in hdfs.
   -fixHdfsOrphans   Try to fix region dirs with no .regioninfo file in hdfs
   -fixTableOrphans  Try to fix table dirs with no .tableinfo file in hdfs (online mode only)
   -fixHdfsOverlaps  Try to fix region overlaps in hdfs.
   -fixVersionFile   Try to fix missing hbase.version file in hdfs.
   -maxMerge <n>     When fixing region overlaps, allow at most <n> regions to merge. (n=5 by default)
   -sidelineBigOverlaps  When fixing region overlaps, allow to sideline big overlaps
   -maxOverlapsToSideline <n>  When fixing region overlaps, allow at most <n> regions to sideline per group.
                     (n=2 by default)
   -fixSplitParents  Try to force offline split parents to be online.
   -ignorePreCheckPermission  ignore filesystem permission pre-check
   -fixReferenceFiles  Try to offline lingering reference store files
   -fixEmptyMetaCells  Try to fix hbase:meta entries not referencing any region (empty REGIONINFO_QUALIFIER rows)

  Datafile Repair options: (expert features, use with caution!)
   -checkCorruptHFiles     Check all Hfiles by opening them to make sure they are valid
   -sidelineCorruptHFiles  Quarantine corrupted HFiles.  implies -checkCorruptHFiles

  Metadata Repair shortcuts
   -repair           Shortcut for -fixAssignments -fixMeta -fixHdfsHoles
                                  -fixHdfsOrphans -fixHdfsOverlaps -fixVersionFile
                                  -sidelineBigOverlaps -fixReferenceFiles -fixTableLocks
                                  -fixOrphanedTableZnodes
   -repairHoles      Shortcut for -fixAssignments -fixMeta -fixHdfsHoles

  Table lock options
   -fixTableLocks    Deletes table locks held for a long time (hbase.table.lock.expire.ms,
                     10min by default)

  Table Znode options
   -fixOrphanedTableZnodes    Set table state in ZNode to disabled if table does not exists

 Replication options
   -fixReplication   Deletes replication queues for removed peers

clean

After you have finished using a test or proof-of-concept cluster, the hbase clean utility can remove all HBase-related data from ZooKeeper and HDFS. To run the hbase clean utility, use the bin/hbase clean command. Run it with no options for usage information.
$ bin/hbase clean

Usage: hbase clean (--cleanZk|--cleanHdfs|--cleanAll)
Options:
        --cleanZk   cleans hbase related data from zookeeper.
        --cleanHdfs cleans hbase related data from hdfs.
        --cleanAll  cleans hbase related data from both zookeeper and hdfs.