Kerberos Security Artifacts Overview

Cloudera recommends using Kerberos for authentication because native Hadoop authentication alone checks only for valid user:group membership in the context of HDFS, but does not authenticate users or services across all network resources, as does Kerberos. Unlike other mechanisms that may be far easier to deploy (see Kerberos Deployment Models for details), the Kerberos protocol authenticates a requesting user or service for a specific period of time only, and each service that the user may want to use requires the appropriate Kerberos artifact in the context of the protocol. This section describes how Cloudera clusters use some of these artifacts, such as Kerberos principals and keytabs for user authentication, and how delegation tokens are used by the system to authenticate jobs on behalf of authenticated users at runtime.

Kerberos Principals

Each user and service that needs to authenticate to Kerberos needs a principal, an entity that uniquely identifies the user or service in the context of possibly multiple Kerberos servers and related subsystems. A principal includes up to three pieces of identifying information, starting with the user or service name (called a primary). Typically, the primary portion of the principal consists of the user account name from the operating system, such as jcarlos for the user's Unix account or hdfs for the Linux account associated with the service daemon on the host underlying cluster node.

Principals for users typically consist solely of the primary and the Kerberos realm name. The realm is a logical grouping of principals tied to the same Key Distribution Center (KDC) which is configured with many of the same properties, such as supported encryption algorithms. Large organizations may use realms as means of delegating administration to various groups or teams for specific sets of users or functions and distributing the authentication-processing tasks across multiple servers.

Standard practice is to use your organization's domain name as the Kerberos realm name (in all uppercase characters) to easily distinguish it as part of a Kerberos principal, as shown in this user principal pattern:

username@REALM.EXAMPLE.COM

The combination of the primary and the realm name can distinguish one user from another. For example, jcarlos@SOME-REALM.EXAMPLE.COM and jcarlos@ANOTHER-REALM.EXAMPLE.COM may be unique individuals within the same organization.

For service role instance identities, the primary is the Unix account name used by Hadoop daemons (hdfs, mapred, and so on) followed by an instance name that identifies the specific host on which the service runs. For example, hdfs/hostname.fqdn.example.com@SOME-REALM.EXAMPLE.COM is an example of the principal for an HDFS service instance. The forward slash (/) separates the primary and the instance names using this basic pattern:

service-name/hostname.fqdn.example.com@REALM.EXAMPLE.COM
The HTTP principal needed for Hadoop web service interfaces does not have a Unix local account for its primary but rather is HTTP.

An instance name can also identify users with special roles, such as administrators. For example, the principal jcarlos@SOME-REALM.COM and the principal jcarlos/admin@SOME-REALM.COM each have their own passwords and privileges, and they may or may not be the same individual.

For example, the principal for the HDFS service role instance running on a cluster in an organization with realms for each geographical location might be as follows:
hdfs/hostname.fqdn.example.com@OAKLAND.EXAMPLE.COM
Generally, the service name is the Unix account name used by the given service role instance, such as hdfs or mapred, as shown above. The HTTP principal for securing web authentication to Hadoop service web interfaces has no Unix account, so the primary for the principal is HTTP.

Kerberos Keytabs

A keytab is a file that contains the principal and the encrypted key for the principal. Each principal has its own , a file containing the Kerberos principal and the encrypted key. containing pairs of Kerberos principals and an encrypted copy of that principal's key. A keytab file for a Hadoop daemon is unique to each host since the principal names include the hostname. This file is used to authenticate a principal on a host to Kerberos without human interaction or storing a password in a plain text file. Because having access to the keytab file for a principal allows one to act as that principal, access to the keytab files should be tightly secured.

They should be readable by a minimal set of users, should be stored on local disk, and should not be included in host backups, unless access to those backups is as secure as access to the local host.

Delegation Tokens

Users in a Hadoop cluster authenticate themselves to the NameNode using their Kerberos credentials. However, once the user is authenticated, each job subsequently submitted must also be checked to ensure it comes from an authenticated user. Since there could be a time gap between a job being submitted and the job being executed, during which the user could have logged off, user credentials are passed to the NameNode using delegation tokens that can be used for authentication in the future.

Delegation tokens are a secret key shared with the NameNode, that can be used to impersonate a user to get a job executed. While these tokens can be renewed, new tokens can only be obtained by clients authenticating to the NameNode using Kerberos credentials. By default, delegation tokens are only valid for a day. However, since jobs can last longer than a day, each token specifies a JobTracker as a renewer which is allowed to renew the delegation token once a day, until the job completes, or for a maximum period of 7 days. When the job is complete, the JobTracker requests the NameNode to cancel the delegation token.

Token Format

The NameNode uses a random masterKey to generate delegation tokens. All active tokens are stored in memory with their expiry date (maxDate). Delegation tokens can either expire when the current time exceeds the expiry date, or, they can be canceled by the owner of the token. Expired or canceled tokens are then deleted from memory. The sequenceNumber serves as a unique ID for the tokens. The following section describes how the Delegation Token is used for authentication.
TokenID = {ownerID, renewerID, issueDate, maxDate, sequenceNumber}
TokenAuthenticator = HMAC-SHA1(masterKey, TokenID) 
Delegation Token = {TokenID, TokenAuthenticator}

Authentication Process

To begin the authentication process, the client first sends the TokenID to the NameNode. The NameNode uses this TokenID and the masterKey to once again generate the corresponding TokenAuthenticator, and consequently, the Delegation Token. If the NameNode finds that the token already exists in memory, and that the current time is less than the expiry date (maxDate) of the token, then the token is considered valid. If valid, the client and the NameNode will then authenticate each other by using the TokenAuthenticator that they possess as the secret key, and MD5 as the protocol. Since the client and NameNode do not actually exchange TokenAuthenticators during the process, even if authentication fails, the tokens are not compromised.

Token Renewal

Delegation tokens must be renewed periodically by the designated renewer (renewerID). For example, if a JobTracker is the designated renewer, the JobTracker will first authenticate itself to the NameNode. It will then send the token to be authenticated to the NameNode. The NameNode verifies the following information before renewing the token:
  • The JobTracker requesting renewal is the same as the one identified in the token by renewerID.
  • The TokenAuthenticator generated by the NameNode using the TokenID and the masterKey matches the one previously stored by the NameNode.
  • The current time must be less than the time specified by maxDate.

If the token renewal request is successful, the NameNode sets the new expiry date to min(current time+renew period, maxDate). If the NameNode was restarted at any time, it will have lost all previous tokens from memory. In this case, the token will be saved to memory once again, this time with a new expiry date. Hence, designated renewers must renew all tokens with the NameNode after a restart, and before relaunching any failed tasks.

A designated renewer can also revive an expired or canceled token as long as the current time does not exceed maxDate. The NameNode cannot tell the difference between a token that was canceled, or has expired, and one that was erased from memory due to a restart, since only the masterKey persists in memory. The masterKey must be updated regularly.