Oracle Database

Collecting Oracle Database Information

To configure Cloudera Manager to work with an Oracle database, get the following information from your Oracle DBA:

  • Hostname - The DNS name or the IP address of the host where the Oracle database is installed.
  • SID - The name of the schema that will store Cloudera Manager information.
  • Username - A username for each schema that is storing information. You could have four unique usernames for the four schema.
  • Password - A password corresponding to each username.

Configuring the Oracle Server

Adjusting Oracle Settings to Accommodate Larger Clusters

Cloudera Management services require high write throughput. Depending on the size of your deployments, your DBA may need to modify Oracle settings for monitoring services. These guidelines are for larger clusters and do not apply to the Cloudera Manager configuration database and to smaller clusters. Many factors help determine whether you need to change your database settings, but in most cases, if your cluster has more than 100 hosts, you should consider making the following changes:
  • Enable direct and asynchronous I/O by setting the FILESYSTEMIO_OPTIONS parameter to SETALL.
  • Increase the RAM available to Oracle by changing the MEMORY_TARGET parameter. The amount of memory to assign depends on the size of the Hadoop cluster.
  • Create more redo log groups and spread the redo log members across separate disks or logical unit numbers.
  • Increase the size of redo log members to be at least 1 GB.

Modifying the Maximum Number of Oracle Connections

Work with your Oracle database administrator to ensure appropriate values are applied for your Oracle database settings. You must determine the number of connections, transactions, and sessions to be allowed.

Allow 100 maximum connections for each service that requires a database and then add 50 extra connections. For example, for two services, set the maximum connections to 250. If you have five services that require a database on one host (the databases for Cloudera Manager Server, Activity Monitor, Reports Manager, Cloudera Navigator, and Hive metastore), set the maximum connections to 550.

From the maximum number of connections, you can determine the number of anticipated sessions using the following formula:

sessions = (1.1 * maximum_connections) + 5

For example, if a host has a database for two services, anticipate 250 maximum connections. If you anticipate a maximum of 250 connections, plan for 280 sessions.

Once you know the number of sessions, you can determine the number of anticipated transactions using the following formula:

transactions = 1.1 * sessions

Continuing with the previous example, if you anticipate 280 sessions, you can plan for 308 transactions.

Work with your Oracle database administrator to apply these derived values to your system.

Using the sample values above, Oracle attributes would be set as follows:

alter system set processes=250;
alter system set transactions=308;
alter system set sessions=280;

Ensuring Your Oracle Database Supports UTF8

The database you use must support UTF8 character set encoding. You can implement UTF8 character set encoding in Oracle databases by using the dbca utility. In this case, you can use the characterSet AL32UTF8 option to specify proper encoding. Consult your DBA to ensure UTF8 encoding is properly configured.

Installing the Oracle JDBC Connector

You must install the JDBC connector on the Cloudera Manager Server host and on hosts to which you assign the Activity Monitor, Reports Manager, Hive Metastore Server, Hue Server, Sentry Server, Cloudera Navigator Audit Server, and Cloudera Navigator Metadata Server server roles.

Cloudera recommends that you assign all roles that require a database on the same host and install the connector on that host. Locating all such roles on the same host is recommended but not required. If you install a role, such as Activity Monitor, on one host and other roles on a separate host, you would install the JDBC connector on each host running roles that access the database.

  1. Download the Oracle JDBC Driver from the Oracle website. For example, the version 6 JAR file is named ojdbc6.jar.

    For more information about supported Oracle Java versions, see CDH and Cloudera Manager Supported JDK Versions.

    The driver is available for download at http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/database/enterprise-edition/jdbc-112010-090769.html.

  2. Copy the Oracle JDBC JAR file to /usr/share/java/oracle-connector-java.jar. The Cloudera Manager databases and the Hive Mestastore database use this shared file.
    $ mkdir /usr/share/java (if necessary)
    $ cp /tmp/ojdbc6.jar /usr/share/java/oracle-connector-java.jar

Creating Databases for the Cloudera Manager Server, Activity Monitor, Reports Manager, Hive Metastore Server, Hue Server, Sentry Server, Cloudera Navigator Audit Server, and Cloudera Navigator Metadata Server

Create schema and user accounts for components that require databases:
  • Cloudera Manager Server (not required if you are using the Cloudera Manager installer)
  • Cloudera Management Service roles:
    • Activity Monitor (if using the MapReduce service)
    • Reports Manager
    • Cloudera Navigator Audit Server
    • Cloudera Navigator Metadata Server
  • Hive Metastore
  • Sentry Server

You can create the Oracle database, schema and users on the host where the Cloudera Manager Server will run, or on any other hosts in the cluster. For performance reasons, you should install each database on the host on which the service runs, as determined by the roles you assign during installation or upgrade. In larger deployments or in cases where database administrators are managing the databases the services use, you can separate databases from services, but use caution.

The database must be configured to support UTF-8 character set encoding.

Record the values you enter for database names, usernames, and passwords. The Cloudera Manager installation wizard requires this information to correctly connect to these databases.

  1. Log into the Oracle client:
    sqlplus system@localhost
    Enter password: ******
  2. Create a schema and user for the Cloudera Manager Server. The minimum permissions required are:
    create user username identified by password default tablespace tablespace;
    grant CREATE SESSION to username;
    grant CREATE TABLE to username;
    grant CREATE SEQUENCE to username;
    grant EXECUTE on sys.dbms_lob to username;
    where username and password are the credentials you specified in Preparing a Cloudera Manager Server External Database.
  3. Grant a quota on the tablespace (the default tablespace is SYSTEM) where tables will be created:
    SQL> ALTER USER username quota 100m on tablespace 
    or for unlimited space:
    SQL> ALTER USER username quota unlimited on tablespace
  4. Create schema and users for Activity Monitor, Reports Manager, Hive Metastore Server, Hue Server, Sentry Server, Cloudera Navigator Audit Server, and Cloudera Navigator Metadata Server:schema, user, and password can be any value. The examples match the default names provided in the Cloudera Manager configuration settings:
    Role Schema User Password
    Activity Monitor amon amon amon_password
    Reports Manager rman rman rman_password
    Hive Metastore Server metastore hive hive_password
    Sentry Server sentry sentry sentry_password
    Cloudera Navigator Audit Server nav nav nav_password
    Cloudera Navigator Metadata Server navms navms navms_password
  5. For each user in the table in the preceding step, create a user and add privileges for the each user:
    create user username identified by password default tablespace tablespace;
    grant CREATE SESSION to username;
    grant CREATE TABLE to username;
    grant CREATE SEQUENCE to username;
    grant EXECUTE on sys.dbms_lob to username;
  6. Grant a quota on the tablespace (the default tablespace is SYSTEM) where tables will be created:
    SQL> ALTER USER username quota 100m on tablespace 
    or for unlimited space:
    SQL> ALTER USER username quota unlimited on tablespace
    For further information about Oracle privileges, see Authorization: Privileges, Roles, Profiles, and Resource Limitations.
  7. After creating the Cloudera Navigator Audit Server database, set the following additional privileges:
    GRANT EXECUTE ON sys.dbms_crypto TO nav;
    GRANT CREATE VIEW TO nav;
    where nav is the Navigator Audit Server user you specified above when you created the database.

Return to Establish Your Cloudera Manager Repository Strategy.

Configuring the Hue Server to Store Data in Oracle (Client Parcel)

To install and configure the Oracle server and client repository for Hue, see Connect Hue to Oracle with Client Parcel

Connect Hue Service to Oracle

You can connect Hue to your Oracle database while installing CDH (and Hue) or with an existing installation. With existing CDH installations, you can connect and restart Hue, without saving the data in your current database, or you can migrate the old data into Oracle.

New CDH Installation

See Install Hue 1-2-3 to install Cloudera Manager (and its Installation Wizard), which you will use here to install CDH and the Oracle client.

Install CDH and Oracle Parcel
  1. Run the Cloudera Manager Installation Wizard to install CDH (and Hue): http://<cm server hostname>:7180
  2. Stop at Select Repository to add the Oracle client parcel repository (Cluster Installation, step Step 1):
    1. Choose Method Use Parcels and click More Options.
    2. Click Plus icon and add the URL for your Oracle Remote Parcel Repository:

    3. Click Save Changes.
    4. Select the newly added radio button by ORACLE_INSTANT_CLIENT and click Continue.

      The Oracle parcel is downloaded, distributed, and activated at Cluster Installation, step Step 6 (Installing Selected Parcels).


Connect Hue to Oracle

Continuing with Cloudera Manager Installation Wizard …

  1. Stop at Database Setup to set connection properties (Cluster Setup, step Step 3).
    1. Select Use Custom Database.
    2. Under Hue, set the connection properties to the Oracle database.
      Database Hostname (and port): <fqdn of host with Oracle server>:1521
      Database Type (or engine): Oracle
      Database SID (or name): orcl
      Database Username: hue
      Database Password: <hue database password>
    3. Click Test Connection and click Continue when successful.

  2. Continue with the installation and click Finish to complete.
  3. Add support for a multi-threaded environment:
    1. Go to Clusters > Hue > Configuration.
    2. Filter by Category, Hue-service and Scope, Advanced.
    3. Add support for a multi-threaded environment by setting Hue Service Advanced Configuration Snippet (Safety Valve) for hue_safety_valve.ini:
      [desktop]
      [[database]]
      options={"threaded":true}
    4. Click Save Changes.
  4. Restart the Hue service: select Actions > Restart and click Restart.
  5. Log on to Hue by clicking Hue Web UI.

Existing CDH Installation

Activate Oracle Client Parcel
  1. Log on to Cloudera Manager.
  2. Go to the Parcels page by clicking Hosts > Parcels (or clicking the parcels icon Parcels icon).
  3. Click the Configuration > Check for New Parcels.
  4. Find ORACLE_INSTANT_CLIENT and click Download, Distribute, and Activate.

Connect Hue to Oracle

If you are not migrating the current (or old) database, simply connect to your new Oracle database and restart Hue (steps 3 and 6).

  1. [migration only] Stop Hue Service
    1. In Cloudera Manager, navigate to Cluster > Hue.
    2. Select Actions > Stop.
  2. [migration only] Dump Current Database
    1. Select Actions > Dump Database.
    2. Click Dump Database. The file is written to /tmp/hue_database_dump.json on the host of the Hue server.
    3. Log on to the host of the Hue server in a command-line terminal.
    4. Edit /tmp/hue_database_dump.json by removing all objects with useradmin.userprofile in the model field. For example:
      # Count number of objects
      grep -c useradmin.userprofile /tmp/hue_database_dump.json
      vi /tmp/hue_database_dump.json
      {
        "pk": 1,
        "model": "useradmin.userprofile",
        "fields": {
          "last_activity": "2016-10-03T10:06:13",
          "creation_method": "HUE",
          "first_login": false,
          "user": 1,
          "home_directory": "/user/admin"
        }
      },
      {
        "pk": 2,
        "model": "useradmin.userprofile",
        "fields": {
          "last_activity": "2016-10-03T10:27:10",
          "creation_method": "HUE",
          "first_login": false,
          "user": 2,
          "home_directory": "/user/alice"
        }
      },
  3. Connect to New Database
    1. Configure Database connections:
      • Go to Hue > Configuration and filter by category, Database.
      • Set database properties and click Save Changes:
      Hue Database Type (or engine): Oracle
      Hue Database Hostname: <fqdn of host with Oracle server>
      Hue Database Port: 1521
      Hue Database Username: hue
      Hue Database Password: <hue database password>
      Hue Database Name (or SID): orcl
    2. Add support for a multi-threaded environment:
      • Filter by Category, Hue-service and Scope, Advanced.
      • Set Hue Service Advanced Configuration Snippet (Safety Valve) for hue_safety_valve.ini and click Save Changes:
      [desktop]
      [[database]]
      options={"threaded":true}
  4. [migration only] Synchronize New Database
    1. Select Actions > Synchronize Database
    2. Click Synchronize Database.
  5. [migration only] Load Data from Old Database
    sqlplus hue/<your hue password> < delete_from_tables.ddl
  6. Re/Start Hue service
    1. Navigate to Cluster > Hue.
    2. Select Actions > Start, and click Start.
    3. Click Hue Web UI to log on to Hue with a custom Oracle database.

Configuring the Hue Server to Store Data in Oracle (Client Package)

To install and configure the Oracle server and client repository for Hue, see Connect Hue to Oracle with Client Package

Connect Hue Service to Oracle

You can connect Hue to your Oracle database while installing CDH (and Hue) or with an existing installation. With existing CDH installations, you can connect and restart Hue, without saving the data in your current database, or you can migrate the old data into Oracle.

New CDH Installation

See Install Hue 1-2-3 to install Cloudera Manager (and its Installation Wizard), which you will use here to install CDH and the Oracle client.

  1. Run the Cloudera Manager Installation Wizard to install CDH (and Hue): http://<cm server hostname>:7180
  2. Stop at the end of Cluster Installation to copy the latest cx_Oracle package into Hue's Python environment.

  3. Stop at Database Setup to set connection properties (Cluster Setup, step Step 3).
    1. Select Use Custom Database.
    2. Under Hue, set the connection properties to the Oracle database.
      Database Hostname (and port): <fqdn of host with Oracle server>:1521
      Database Type (or engine): Oracle
      Database SID (or name): orcl
      Database Username: hue
      Database Password: <hue database password>
    3. Click Test Connection and click Continue when successful.

  4. Continue with the installation and click Finish to complete.
  5. Add support for a multi-threaded environment:
    1. Go to Clusters > Hue > Configuration.
    2. Filter by Category, Hue-service and Scope, Advanced.
    3. Add support for a multi-threaded environment by setting Hue Service Advanced Configuration Snippet (Safety Valve) for hue_safety_valve.ini:
      [desktop]
      [[database]]
      options={"threaded":true}
    4. Click Save Changes.
  6. Restart the Hue service: select Actions > Restart and click Restart.
  7. Log on to Hue by clicking Hue Web UI.

Existing CDH Installation

If you are not migrating the current (or old) database, simply connect to your new Oracle database and restart Hue (steps 3 and 6).

  1. [migration only] Stop Hue Service
    1. In Cloudera Manager, navigate to Cluster > Hue.
    2. Select Actions > Stop.
  2. [migration only] Dump Current Database
    1. Select Actions > Dump Database.
    2. Click Dump Database. The file is written to /tmp/hue_database_dump.json on the host of the Hue server.
    3. Log on to the host of the Hue server in a command-line terminal.
    4. Edit /tmp/hue_database_dump.json by removing all objects with useradmin.userprofile in the model field. For example:
      # Count number of objects
      grep -c useradmin.userprofile /tmp/hue_database_dump.json
      vi /tmp/hue_database_dump.json
      {
        "pk": 1,
        "model": "useradmin.userprofile",
        "fields": {
          "last_activity": "2016-10-03T10:06:13",
          "creation_method": "HUE",
          "first_login": false,
          "user": 1,
          "home_directory": "/user/admin"
        }
      },
      {
        "pk": 2,
        "model": "useradmin.userprofile",
        "fields": {
          "last_activity": "2016-10-03T10:27:10",
          "creation_method": "HUE",
          "first_login": false,
          "user": 2,
          "home_directory": "/user/alice"
        }
      },
  3. Connect to New Database
    1. Configure Database connections: Go to Hue > Configuration, filter by Database, set properties, and click Save Changes:
      Hue Database Type (or engine): Oracle
      Hue Database Hostname: <fqdn of host with Oracle server>
      Hue Database Port: 1521
      Hue Database Username: hue
      Hue Database Password: <hue database password>
      Hue Database Name (or SID): orcl
    2. Add support for a multi-threaded environment: Filter by Hue-service, set Hue Service Advanced Configuration Snippet (Safety Valve) for hue_safety_valve.ini, and click Save Changes:
      [desktop]
      [[database]]
      options={"threaded":true}
  4. [migration only] Synchronize New Database
    1. Select Actions > Synchronize Database
    2. Click Synchronize Database.
  5. [migration only] Load Data from Old Database
    sqlplus hue/<your hue password> < delete_from_tables.ddl
  6. Re/Start Hue service
    1. Navigate to Cluster > Hue.
    2. Select Actions > Start, and click Start.
    3. Click Hue Web UI to log on to Hue with a custom Oracle database.

Configuring Oracle for Oozie

Install and Start Oracle 11g

Use Oracle's instructions.

Create the Oozie Oracle User and Grant Privileges

The following example uses the Oracle sqlplus command-line tool, and shows the privileges Cloudera recommends. Oozie needs CREATE SESSION to start and manage workflows. The additional roles are needed for creating and upgrading the Oozie database.

$ sqlplus system@localhost

Enter password: ******

SQL> create user oozie identified by oozie default tablespace users temporary tablespace temp;

User created.

SQL> grant alter index to oozie;
grant alter table to oozie;
grant create index to oozie;
grant create sequence to oozie;
grant create session to oozie;
grant create table to oozie;
grant drop sequence to oozie;
grant select dictionary to oozie;
grant drop table to oozie;
alter user oozie quota unlimited on users; 
alter user oozie quota unlimited on system;

SQL> exit

$

Add the Oracle JDBC Driver JAR to Oozie

Copy or symbolically link the Oracle JDBC driver JAR into the /var/lib/oozie/ directory.